JULY 15 - AUGUST 27, 2021

The horse, and the culture that surrounds the equine are vehicles to communicate ineffable themes of nobility, fantasy, coming of age, gender, eroticism, identity, and the lived experience. Such various manifestations serve as a guide to the deeper values within humanity itself.

Eadweard Muybridge
Horses Galloping and Jumping (from Animal Locomotion, Plate 645), 1887, collotype print, 7 3/4 × 14 3/4 inches (19.7 × 37.5 cm)

In their published form, the sequence captures stop-motions images unlike anything prior to its conception. This sequential series was the genesis for the moving image as it was the first successful attempt at depicting the automic movement of the horse.

Susan Rothenberg
August, 1976, acrylic and tempera on canvas, 38 x 52 1/2 inches (96.5 x 133.3 cm)

Susan Rothenberg utilized the horse in her work during the height of minimalist abstraction. Her horses became a watershed moment in painting, reintroducing figuration into a world that was dominated pictorially by non-representational imagery. Rothenberg’s pared down equine iconography serve as primitive symbolic vehicles conjuring associations of power and movement.

David Wojnarowicz
Times Square Cowboy, 1980s, silver gelatin print, 9 1/2 x 6 3/4 inches (24.1 x 17.1 cm)

After 1950, cowboys as a concept became adopted by the mainstream as a beacon of hypermasculinity. David Wojanrowicz’s portrait of a sex worker in Times Square in the 1980s depicts a young male dressed in cowboy attire, a common garb for “hustlers” at the time, co-opting hypermasculine western aesthetic which were viewed as desirable to their patrons.

Tseng Kwong Chi 
Monument Valley, AZ, 1987, From the East Meets West self portrait series: 1979-1990 a.k.a. The Expeditionary Series, selenium toned silver gelatin print, 36 x 36 inches (91.4 x 91.4 cm), edition 2 of 9

Cowboys were main characters of the “American West”, a place/era that has been culturally mythologized by both Americans and those from outside the country. Tseng Kwong Chi investigated this mythology in his series East Meets West, where he photographed himself in a traditional Mao uniform in front of famous Western sites of tourism. In Monument Valley, Arizona (1987), the artist photographed himself atop a horse in the famous national park, co-opting the image of a masculine lone ranger. It was his first time riding a horse.

Pat Passlof
Yel Sky Bk Hrs, 1993, oil on canvas, 30 x 30 inches (76.2 x 76.2 cm) 

Pat Passlof, known for her vibrant abstractions and dynamic brushstrokes, was a major figure in the AbEx movement in New York. Passlof began painting horses later in her career as a way to challenge her allegiance to abstraction and introduce figuration into her work. The horses also served as a meditation on early childhood memories of her father, a former mounted police officer.

Ron Tarver
The Basketball Game #1, 1993, pigment ink print, 12 1/4 x 20 inches (31.2 x 50.8 cm)

Ron Tarver, in his acclaimed series The Long Ride Home: The Black Cowboy Experience in America, tracked the modern iteration of the Black Cowboy of the course of the 1990s. In The Basketball Game #1 (1993) and David’s Last Ride (1996), Tarver focused on two separate aspects of the culture — the urban cowboys of Philadelphia and the rodeos of East Texas.

Ron Tarver
David’s Last Ride, 1996, unique c-print, 19 1/2 x 13 inches (49.5 x 33 cm)

Ron Tarver
Nathaniel Youngblood, 1995, unique gelatin silver print, 11 1/2 x 10 3/4 inches (29.2 x 27.3 cm)

A major facet of equine culture is that of the American cowboy. The beginnings of cowboys in the United States were a result of the end of slavery in the later 1800s, where ranchers hired freed slaves to herd their cattle, as it was one of the only paying jobs open to men of color at the time. Tarver’s series delves into the lives of black cowboys and their multifaceted forgotten narratives.


Patricia Cronin
Tack Room, 1997-2021, mixed media, 96 x 126 x 114 inches (243.8 x 320 x 289.6 cm)

On view in the exhibition will be the fifth iteration of Patricia Cronin’s Tack Room, a large-scale installation previously shown at White Columns (1998), Real Art Ways (1999), UB Gallery at University of Buffalo (2004) and the Armory Show (2017). Tack Room is a replica of the storage/locker room area in a horse barn, filled with a variety of equine accoutrements and paraphernalia. Within the 100 square foot room exist a whole assortment of riding equipment, centerfolds from erotic magazines, and other horse girl objects of obsession. The items in the installation are loaded with multiple meanings, highlighting the suggestive undertones that exist within much of horse culture.


Alison Rossiter
Rosa Bonheur, The Horse Fair, 2003, light drawing on Ilford MGIV paper, 20 x 24 inches (50.8 × 61 cm)

Enthralled by the inherent unpredictable qualities of analog photography, Rossiter collects expired photographic paper, some of which dating back to the early 1900s. Rossiter to coaxes out the subtleties of shades and hues to reveal the residing within the paper in the darkroom by freehand drawing with a flashlight directly onto the gelatin silver paper. Referencing historical imagery of Muybridge and Bonheur’s horses, Rossiter’s Light Horse drawing series transpired from her lifelong admiration of horses.  

Laurel Nakadate
Lucky Tiger (#246), 2009, type-C print and fingerprinting ink, image: 4 x 6 inches (10.2 x 15.2 cm), framed: 8 3/4 x 10 3/4 inches (22.2 x 27.3 cm)

In her Lucky Tiger series, Nakadate co-opts both western and pin-up aesthetics by photographing herself riding a horse in a cowboy hat and minimal clothing. She then asked male strangers to handle the prints with their fingers covered in ink, documenting a history of voyeuristic touch. 

Dana Sherwood
In Love with a Horse, 2009, single channel video, duration: 1:00, dimensions variable, edition 1 of 3

Dana Sherwood
Sight Equus Mongolia, 2019, digital video, duration: 5:22, dimensions variable, edition 1 of 3

Dana Sherwood
Girl in the Belly of a Horse, 2019, watercolor on paper, 9 x 12 inches (23 x 31 cm)

Dana Sherwood’s work explores the contact between humans and animals as a means to understanding culture and behavior. The animals in Sherwood’s work assume the complex role of both subject and collaborator. In her film, In Love With a Horse, Sherwood mines the trajectory of the “horse girl” trope, juxtaposing the steroptype in popular television and film with footage of herself taking care of her own horse.

Santi Moix
Untitled, 2010, watercolor on paper, 8 1/4 x 10 1/2 inches (21 x 26.7 cm) 

Santi Moix
Untitled, 2010, watercolor on paper, 6 x 9 1/4 inches (15.2 x 23.5 cm)

Santi Moix
Untitled, 2010, watercolor on paper, 6 x 9 1/4 inches (15.2 x 23.5 cm)

Moix’s work is characterized by fragmentation, sensuality, and an acute consideration of form. Moix delves into sources of literature and art historical scenes for central themes to depart as reference points, coming to inform his fantastical abstractions resulting in the depiction of an ethereal world entirely of Moix’s own creation. Moix references the famous Millbrook Horse Trials in the first two works, and the third work depicts the bull rodeos of Moix’s native Spain.

Donald Baechler
A Friday Horse, 2011, gesso, flashe, and paper collage on paper, 21 x 27 inches (53.3 x 68.6 cm)

Donald Baechler is known for his multi-media works depicting childhood imagery and nostalgic ephemera. Traces of grammar school primers, old maps, and children’s drawings are collaged in the background, embued with motifs such as flowers, birds, and ice cream cones.

Sophia Narrett
Still Burning, 2012, embroidery thread and fabric, 33 x 48 inches (83.8 x 121.9 cm)

Recalling epic 15th century depraved worlds of Netherlandish master Hieronymus Bosch, Narrett’s meticulously detailed, painterly thread works depict fantastical scenes embedded with romance, violence, and sexual desire. Challenging what was once confined to the world of craft or “women’s work,” Narrett’s unique approach pushes the medium to new limits.

Martine Gutierrez
Girl Friends (Anita and Marie 5), 2014, archival inkjet print, 9 x 13 1.2 inches (22.9 x 34.4 cm), edition of 8

Interested in the fluidity of relationships and gender roles, Gutierrez explores feminine dynamics and diverse narratives of intimact through self-portraiture in which she poses with mannequins as her counterpart. In Girl Friends, Gutierrez further expands on ideas of intimacy and fluid boundaries. Through the transformation of physical space and self-composure, these cinematic photographs depict desperate worlds paralleled by dichotomies of allure and sorrow, innocence and mischief, freedom and confinement.


Ellen Berkenblit
Lilac, 2016, oil and paint stick on linen, 77 x 64 inches (195.6 x 162.6 cm)

Combining an Abstract Expressionist style with signature figurative characters of her own invention, Ellen Berkenblit’s work explores kinetic line-work in her exuberant large-scale paintings, allowing for deftly constructed abstract forms, confident brushstrokes, and minimal color choice to animate the work.

Vincent Szarek
Oops, 2016, bronze, chrome plates, 17 x 17 x 2 inches (43.2 x 43.2 x 5.1 cm)

Vincent Szarek’s analysis of reflective objects delves into the individualization of mass production, correlating subjects of high and low art within American subcultures. Emblematic inconography from the time of the American gold rush on the West Coast, such as this chromed horseshoe, permeats this series of work, thus reflecting the artist’s affinity to Americana.

Joe Andoe
RR #2 May 15, RR #2 May 20, 2018, oil on aluminum, 36 x 24 inches (91.4 x 64 cm)


Joe Andoe
RR #2 May 20, RR #2 May 20, 2018, oil on aluminum, 36 x 24 inches (91.4 x 64 cm)

Andoe’s austere depictions of everyday subjects recollect memories and connections he has to the vastness of the Great Plains. Andoe’s paradigmatic process employs a reductive technique. Utilizing thin paint and photographic-like rendering, Andoe begins by covering the surface with black paint, proceeding to wipe the material while wet to reveal the image beneath. In his recent work, Andoe underscores the possibilities of imagery by developing a cinematic vision of American mythologies embued with enigmatic and textural minimalism.

Shari Mendelson
Horse Askos, 2018, repurposed plastic and mixed media, 10 1/2 x 3 x 8 inches (26.7 x 7.6 x 20.3 cm)

Shari Mendelson
Horse and Rider for Bill Traylor, 2020, repurposed plastic and mixed media, 12 1/2 x 3 x 10 inches (31.8 x 7.6 x 25.4 cm)

Mendelson’s sculptures are comprised of ordinary plastic beverage bottles which she collects in and around her Brooklyn studio. Using the unique aspects of the materiality’s color, shape and patterning, she recycles this commonplace product into her sculptural objects. This body of work draws on ancient history, and her many visits to the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Through her process and subject matter, Mendelson converges civilizations and creates a composite of the present and the remote past.

Will Cotton
Cowboy, 2019, lithograph with chalk hand work, 40 x 30 inches (101.6 x 76.2 cm), monoprint

Using a refined painterly technique inspired by the Hudson River School and traditional figure painting, Cotton depicts surrealistic tableaus full of overt and understated eroticism.  Cowboys and unicorns have more recently appeared in Cotton’s work— this piece captures the artist’s subversive notions surrounding these subject matters.

Andy Woll
Faiz-Ullah, 2019, oil on linen, 11 x 14 inches (27.9 x 35.6 cm)

Andy Woll
Ulloa, 2020, oil on linen, 11 x 14 inches (27.9 x 35.6 cm)

Employing cues deriving from Modernist literary figures such as James Joyce, Woll’s painting process follows a similar cadence to that of automatic writing. Woll allows for chance to inform logic, and in turn gives rise to an intuitive pictorial style. Often utlitizing an ebullient color scheme, his works employs sparce gestural applications of thick oil paint.

Jason Silva
7-21-19, 2019, graphite on paper, 7 1/4 x 10 1/4 inches (18.4 x 26 cm), framed: 9 1/2 x 12 1/2 inches (24.1 x 31.8 cm)

Jason Silva
6-22-17, 2017, graphite on paper, 7 1/4 x 10 1/4 inches (18.4 x 26 cm)

Silva’s most prolific body of work, the graphite works on paper, are a ritualistic practice the artist began in 2009. Limited to four pencils of different weights, Silva produces interior scenes and object assemblages that evoke a cinematic sense of mystery. The title of each drawing corresponds with the date in which it was executed, marking a visual history of his image-making.

Matthew Constant
Pony, 2020, graphite, colored pencil, and fixative on paper, 16 x 12 inches (40 x 30.5 cm), framed: 19 3/4 x 15 3/4 inches (50.2 x 40 cm)

Matthew Constant
Ponies, 2021, graphite and fixative on paper, 11 1/2 x 13 inches (29.2 x 33 cm)

Matthew Constant’s work deals with the quiet ephemerality of the everyday. Constant pulls references from walks around his neighborhood in Pittsburgh, noting shapes of stained glass windows or footprints in the snow, using these moments to create drawings that serve as a visual synthesis of his memories. These works, specifically commissioned for the show, display Constant’s idiosyncratic drawing style and his attention to fine detail.

Lena Henke
Bei Klaus und Annette, 2020, glazed ceramic, each: 18 x 8 x 8 inches (45.7 x 20.3 x 20.3 cm)

Henke’s Bei Klaus und Annette is part of a new series of sculptures. Each is squeezed, twisted, or torqued, vacillating between forms resembling both a tree branch and horse hoof. Produced while meditating on her childhood growing up on a horse farm in Frankfurt, Henke’s sculptures conjure deep emotive associations relating back to her adolescence.

Jaclyn Conley
Taming The War Horse (collage), 2021, oil on panel collage, 20 x 16 inches (50.8 x 40.6 cm)

Jaclyn Conley
Taming The War Horse, 2021, oil on panel, 60 x 48 inches (152 x 121.9 cm) 

Jaclyn Conley’s collaged paintings source historical political imagery which she employs to deconstruct the horse into elements of abstraction. In this painting, Conley utilized an image of students gathering in Grant Park following the Kent State shootings in 1970. The students are seen climbing a monument of John Alexander Logan on horseback, in protest of the massacre and the Vietnam War.


Ann Craven
Horses Three (on Blue, with Orchids, February 4, 2021), 2021, watercolor on Arches paper, 140lb, 30 x 22 inches (76.2 x 55.9 cm)

Moved by ideas of memory, time, and change, Ann Craven produces lushly colored, sensuous paintings, whose central motifs of animals, flowers, the moon, and stripes serve as a temporal record of her life and practice. Building upon what came before, she continually re-visits her compositions in an attempt to copy them exactly. While understanding the impossibility of this pursuit, Craven embraces the inevitable differences between each canvas as evidence of our constantly shifting existence and temporality.

Giovanni Garcia-Fenech
Study for Falling Horse 2, 2021, flashe on linen, diameter 24 inches (61 cm)

Giovanni Garcia-Fenech
Study for Falling Horse 3, 2021, flashe on linen, diameter 24 inches (61 cm)

Garcia-Fenech’s subjects continually vascillate between figuration and abstraction. However, the foundations of the work remain the constant - consisting of an entirely improvised composition (painted in one sitting), a considered restricted palette, and keen attention to negative space.

Dominique Knowles
Magdalene, 2021, oil on linen, 12 1/8 x 24 1/4 inches (30.8 x 61.6 cm) 

Dominique Knowles
Chiron, 2021, oil on linen, 12 1/8 x 24 1/4 inches (30.8 x 61.6 cm)

Dominique Knowles illustrates the nuanced complexities that reside within the companionship between humans and animals. While he attributes his horses’ foreshortened side-profiles and burnt hues to those of cave paintings, they also serve as modern expressions of an age-old dichotomy in which the paintings become metaphors for queer desire, a quest for intimacy.

Jessie Makinson
I do not need another spur, 2021, graphite on paper, 11 x 7 inches (27.9 x 17.8 cm)

Jessie Makinson subverts a patriarchal past from a female perspective by reconstructing historical narrative precedents. Makinson constructs for the motifs of her selection, often depicting erotic scenes in which women are perilous active participants rather than passive altruists. Motivated by jealousy, narcissism, and desire, her characters embrace the act of conspiration while exuding sexual power and disrupting expectations. Makinson constructs an exquisite coalescence of narratives resulting in a surrealistic, chaotic reassessment of the collective human consciousness.

Anthony Miler
Not Titled, 2021, acrylic and pigments on canvas, 18 x 21 inches (45.7 x 53.3 cm)

Miler deconstructs the geometries of living things and discernible environments, reassembling them to create images that simultaneously feel strange yet familiar. In Not Titled, Miler employs his visual deconstruction in depicting the underside of a horse hoof. Fluid shapes occupy a shared space in which the palette is elevated through subdued use of color.

Justin Liam O’Brien
A Horse misus’d upon the Road (After MacMonnies "The Horse Tamers", Prospect Park), 2021, oil on canvas, 36 x 36 inches (91.4 x 76.2 cm)

O’Brien’s work evokes tenderness and affection through the soft blending of line, color, and composition. This work, based off of MacMonnies’ sculptural monument in Prospect Park, turns the symbol of a man on a horse into a meditation on queer strength and desire.

Adrianne Rubenstein
Floating Horse, 2021, oil on panel, 34 x 24 inches (86.4 x 61 cm)

The crux of Adrienne Rubenstein’s work is contingent on exploring emotional and often personal histories. Floating Horse evokes Rubenstein’s whimsical and playful approach, as well as her signature lush color pallette.

Wendy Red Star
Hairy Alligator Akbaléaashíiupashku, (Lakota), 1860s, NMAI, “In The Spirit Of Green Skin”, 2021, acrylic, graphite, kitakata paper, marble paper, 22 x 30 inches (55.9 x 76.2 cm)

Apsáalooke (Crow) artist Wendy Red Star references the perpetual importance of the horse to Plains Indian Tribal nations.Sourcing imagery from historical ledger drawings, Red Star employs this mode of “horse getting” by sketching horses and reclaiming them within the scope of her own work. This act of requisitioning also serves to free the equine from institutions that appropriated them to denote their measures of wealth and status. Horses have played an important role in Red Star’s life as well: as a child she spent considerable time with a small group of horses on her family's ranch on the Crow Reservation in Montana. Red Star asserts her place of honor as a horse getter in the continuing tradition of Apsáalooke warriors and artists, connecting a vibrant tradition to an ongoing pursuit of history and identity.

James Ulmer
True Love, 2021, flashe on canvas, 35 x 42 inches (88.9 x 106.7 cm)

Ulmer views his paintings as abstractions and employs simplicity to open up interpretation and communicate universal terms. Ultimately, what Ulmer seeks to create is a simple visual language in which his figures, animals and ambiguous shapes become symbols that can be decoded, similarly to the nature of cave painting interpretation.

Dan Schein
Plant, Window, Horse, 2021, oil on canvas, 20 x 16 inches (50.8 x 40.6 cm)

Dan Schein
Mystical Magical Unicorn Beast, 2021, oil on canvas, 24 x 30 inches (61 x 76.2 cm)

Dan Schein conveys in an inner unrest revealed through dynamic, painterly brushstrokes. The figures depicted are often characters residing on the fringes of society, exposed literally or metaphorically through tones of ambivalent ambience embedded with an underlying sense of ironic humor.

Shona McAndrew
Casey, 2021, acrylic on canvas, 72 x 48 inches (182.9 x 121.9 cm)

McAndrew is known for paintings and sculptures that depict women in their personal spaces. Drawing from a variety of historical and personal references, the artist renders fleeting yet intimate moments of vulnerability in the daily lives of women seldom portrayed in art history.

for more information, please contact:

Pat Passlof: ©/Courtesy the Milton Resnick and Pat Passlof Foundation, New York
Susan Rothenberg: © Susan Rothenberg/Artist Rights Society, courtesy The Collection of Beth Rudin DeWoody
David Wojanrowicz: © the Estate of David Wojnarowicz, courtesy Private Collection, New York
Tseng Kwong Chi: © Muna Tseng Dance Projects, Inc. New York., courtesy the Estate of Tseng. Kwong Chi

All others: © the artist

We would like to thank the artists and the following galleries/collections for their generosity:
Rubber Factory, New York
The Collection of Beth Rudin DeWoody
The Estate of Tseng Kwong Chi
Eric Firestone Gallery, New York
Yossi Milo Gallery, New York
Leslie Tonkonow Art + Projects, New York
Denny Dimin Gallery, New York
Ryan Lee Gallery, New York
Anton Kern Gallery, New York
SGJ Fine Art, New York
Almine Rech Gallery, New York
Tibor de Nagy, New York
Bortolami, New York
Maruani Mercier, Brussels
Karma, New York
The Green Gallery, Milwaukee
Lyles and King, New York
Monya Rowe Gallery, New York
Sargent’s Daughters, New York

Alongside the physical exhibition, this virtual expanded version of the show traces thirty-two additional iconic horse works throughout art history. 

Lascaux Cave Painting
15,000-17,000 BCE

Lascaux Cave is a Paleolithic cave located in the southwestern region of France, housing some of the most formidable examples of prehistoric cave paintings. With nearly 600 paintings spanning the cave’s interior - horses are among the most numerous figures depicted.

Equestrian Sculpture of Marcus Aurelius
gilded bronze, c. 173-76 C.E, (Capitoline Museums, Rome)

The dynamism captured in the statue depicts the emperor elegantly mounted atop of his horse while participating in public ceremonial rituals. Sculptures during this period were likely commisioned to commemorate an important consummation in the emperor's reign while also serving as an elaborate public monument. Usage of statuture within the Roman Renaissance period denotes the connectivity linking past and present eras of Roman antiquity.  

Palao Uccello
Niccolò Mauruzi da Tolentino at the Battle of San Romano, ca. 1397 - 1475, egg tempera with walnut oil and linseed oil on poplar, 71 13/20 x 126 inches (182 x 320 cm)

This panel is one of three decorative paintings comissioned by prominent Florentine political figure Bartolini Salimbeni to celebrate the victory of Florentine forces at the battle of San Romano. Fought between Florence and Siena in 1432, Uccello depicts Florentine leader Niccolò da Mauruzi da Tolentino assuming his white charger at the crux of the battle.

Mon Seul Désir
Lady and the Unicorn tapestries, ca. 1500, approx. 148 3/4 x 186 1/6 inches (377 x 473 cm)

Lady and the Unicorn is one of six tapestries woven representing the five senses. The remaining sixth sense, discreatly denoted by the inscription “À mon seul désir” (to my only desire), has inspired countless theories. Characterized by an abundance of flora, these tapestries convey an idyllic natural setting conducive to contemplation in which the unicorn occuppies the presence of an affable spectator.  

Albrecht Dürer
The Little Horse, 1505, engraving on paper, 6 1/2 × 4 5/16 inches (16.5 × 10.9 cm)

Horse iconography served as reoccurring subject matter in Dürer’s engravings, often for the purpose of depicting movement and proportion while also providing an emblematic spiritual sense of humanity. The Small Horse alludes to a symbol of sensuality, intersecting the classic idiom of balance and idealization of the Italian Renaissance antiquated sculptures.

George Stubbs
Whistlejacket, 1762, oil on canvas, 115 x 97 inches (292 x 246.4 cm) 

Famed for his paintings of domestic and exotic animals, George Stubbs was accreddited to having produced the most anatomically precise images of the horse. In Whistlejacket, Stubbs makes a conceptual leap by employing a solid background color in lieu of natural surroundings as omitting the context of location was unvoncnetional at this time. The result is a horse appearing more heroic and significant in stature than traditional portrayals.

Jacques Louis David
Naepoleon Crossing the Alps, 1801-1805, oil on canvas, 9 1/2 x 6 3/4 inches (24.1 x 17.1 cm)

Acutely aware of the austerity the image exudes, Napoleon commisioned David to paint him as a successor to the historical empire. Napoleon Crossing the Alps is a series of five oil on canvas equestrian portraits of Napoleon completed between 1801 and 1805.

Eugene Delacroix
Horse Frightened by Lightning, 1825-1829, watercolor, white heightening, and gum arabic on watercolor paper, 9 1/4 x 12 3/5 inches ( 23.5 x 31.9 cm)

As the leading figure of French Romantic painting in the 1820s, Delacroix was famed for his expressive brushstrokes and sensitive treatment of color. Delacroix achieves a synthesis of emotive power of both landscape and animal representation.

Rosa Bonheur
The Horse Fair, 1852-55, oil on canvas, 96 1/4 x 199 1/2 inches (244.5 x 506.7 cm)

Bonheur’s illustrious painting depicts the horse market held in Paris on the tree-lined Boulevard de l’Hôpital, near the asylum of Salpêtrière. For a year and a half, Bonheur sketched there twice a week while dressing in masculine attire to divert attention. In arriving at the final scheme, Bonheur drew inspiration from George Stubbs, Théodore Gericault, Eugène Delacroix, and ancient Greek sculpture: she referred to The Horse Fair as her own "Parthenon frieze”.

Edgas Degas
At the Races, 1860, oil on canvas, 13 x 18 1/2 inches (33 x 47 cm)

Degas' subject matter served as a fashionable place for society during the latter half of the nineteenth century. Degas was concerned with matters of aesthetics and demonstraed a continued desire to depict the social elite and their pastimes. By doing so, Degas tackles traditional subject matter while transposing modernity.

Georges Seurat
The Black Horse, 1882, black conté crayon on paper, 9 3/8 x 12 3/8 inches (23.8 x 31.4 cm)

Seurat produced nearly four hundred conte crayon drawings contrasting the silhouetted figure and the exposed paper, serving as an investigation of the artists keen interest in defining form through contrast and tonal variation.

Frederick Remington
The Bronco Buster, 1895, cast 1918, bronze, 22 3/4 x 18 3/4 x 14 inches (57.8 x 47.6 x 35.6 cm)

Frederic Remington specialized in depicting iconography of the Western United States featuring imagery of cowboys, American Indians, and the US Calvary. His bronze sculpture The Bronco Buster symbolizes the human struggle to control nature and has become a classic symbol of the American West. Incited by action, Remington’s sculptures were designed to convey movement and challenge the limitations imposed by the medium.

Pablo Picasso
Boy Leading a Horse, 1905-06, oil on canvas, 72 7/8 x 51 5/8 inches (220.6 x 131.2 cm)

Picasso developed this painting from the central motif of an unrealized mural of four mounted riders and a walking figure leading a horse. The subject depicted strides forward with confidence, compelling his companion to follow in suit. This subdued palette and restrained expressivity would soon be broken by Cubist exploration.

Franz Marc
Blue Horse I, 1911, oil on canvas, 44 1/4 x 33 1/4 inches (112.5 x 84.5 cm)

German expressionist Franz Marc utilized blue tonalities throughout his work to represent spirituality. His use of vivid color is thought to have been an attempt to evade the material world by evoking a spiritual or transcendental essence. Marc considered animals a purer subject matter than man itself, representing an understanding of divine spirituality.

Sally James Farnham
Simon Boulivar Monument, 1912, bronze, Central Park, New York, New York

Central Park’s entrance, known as the Artists’ Gate, is home to the monument of Latin hero Simon Bolivar. Bolivar played an instrumental role in liberating Venezuela, Columbia, Ecuador, Peru, Boliva, and Panama from the Spanish rule. In 1916, Sally James Farhman won the commission from the Venezuelan government to commemorate their liberator.

Diego Riviera
Agrarian Leader Zapata, 1931, fresco on reinforced cement in galvanized-steel framework, 93 3/4 x 27 inches (238.1 x 188 cm)

After the Mexican Revolution, Rivera was among the painters who developed an art of public murals to celebrate Mexico’s indigenous culture and teach the nation’s people about their history. Riviera also visited Italy to study Renaissance frescoes, a mural form that Mexican artists and politicians recognized as a invaluable medium of education and inspiration.

In 1931 MoMA hosted a major exhibition of Rivera’s work. Unable to transport his murals, the Museum brought the artist to New York before the show’s opening, providing him with a makeshift studio in the gallery. Agrarian Leader Zapata is one of five murals created for the exhibition.

Georgia O’Keeffe
Horse’s Skull with Pink Rose, 1931, oil on canvas, 40 x 30 inches (101.6 × 76.2 cm)

Horse’s Skull with Pink Rose serves as a transitional painting linking O’Keeffe’s earlier flower paintings, created in New York City, and her later desert paintings. The work is a depiction of her initial response to the Southwestern desert. When O’Keeffe first visited New Mexico in 1929, She quickly became entranced with the landscape, compulsively collecting an assortment of bones – shank bones, skulls of rams, cows, and horses – that she found scattered among the terrain. Intending to convey the mood of the desert, the skull and flower are arranged on an abstract field of light color, acting as a subdued suggestion of the environment. O’Keeffe’s fascination with bones persisted throughout the decade, emerging as modern Southwest iconography.

Lenora Carrington
Self Portrait, 1937-38, oil on canvas, 25 9/16 x 32 inches (65 x 81.3 cm)

As the daughter of an English industrialist, Carrington spent her childhood on a country estate surrounded by animals and immersing herself in fantasy narratives. She revisited these memories in her adulthood, creating paintings populated with real and imagined creatures. In Self Portrait, Carrington employs the white horse as her symbolic surrogate, contrasting the scenes destitution as it freely gallops into the verdant landscape beyond the curtained window.

Bill Traylor
Red Man on Blue Horse with Dog, 1939-42, tempera and graphite on repurposed card, 22 1/8 x 14 1/4 inches (56.2 x 36.2 cm)

Bill Traylor was born enslaved on a rural plantation - Traylor employed simple gestures to depict farm animals prominently featured in his work, which he recalled in vivid detail from the plantation he worked on for much of his life. Beginning his compositions with restrained geometric outlines, Traylor finessed them with lively gestures and bold pops of color.

Salvador Dali
The Temptation of St. Anthony, 1946, oil on canvas, 13 11/12 x 47 inches (89.7 x 119.5 cm)

Temptation appears to Saint Anthony in the form of a horse pervading the foreground as a representation of strength. The painting exemplifies many surrealistic elements typical of Dali. Significantly noted, the work was the first of his pieces to exhibit his interest in the intermediates between Heaven and Earth, serving as a precursor to his “classical period”.

Jannis Kounellis
(Untitled) 12 Horses, 1967, dimensions variable, installation view at Galleria L’attico, Rome, 1969

Kounellis encapsulates the idea that art can be derived from anything as long as a certain degree of intensity differentiates it from real life. The product doesn't have to be commerically viable or consumable. An example of Arte Povera, the Italian wint of Post-Minimalism known for using humble, humdane materials.

Deborah Butterfield
Horse, 1979, wood and mud, 33 x 39 x 12 inches (84 x 99 x 30 cm)

Butterfield is an American sculptor best known for her depictions of horses fabricated from found objects and natural materials. Early renditions of these sculptures focus on natural forms, highlighting a sense of movement through space. Her equine figures are imbued with an array of emotional complexities, evoking internalized gestures residing within the equine’s body that alludes to the state of mind or being at a given instant. 

Louise Lawler
Arranged by Mera and Donald Rubell, New York City, 1982, black and white photograph, 17 3/4 x 19 in. (45 x 48.4 cm)

This photograph depicts a Deborah Butterfield sculpture installed in the Rubell's NYC home. Lawler is enthralled by what happens to an art work once it leaves the artist's studio. Lawler’s photographs taken in a private homes exemplify how the environment that surrounds it affects our perception of art and how it consequently affects the aspects of that environment.

Norm Classen
Full Speed, Seymour, TX, 1987, archival pigment print, 60 1/4 x 40 3/16 inches (153 x 102.1 cm)

Beginning in 1978 Clasen served as the principal photographer for the Marlboro campaign. Clasen's intrinsic understanding of the equine and the cowboy lifestyle shaped a visual lexicon that became integral to the iconography of the American West, promting Richard Prince’s incessantly appropriation of Clasen’s images. 

Bruce Nauman
Green Horses, 1988, (still). video installation (color, 59:40 minutes) with two color video monitors, two DVD players, video projector, and chair, dimensions variable

Green Horses revisit's Nauman's earlywork of the 1960s in which he began to work with film and video, often using himself as subject material. A video plays of Nauman putting an unbroken horse through a series of paces. The films intermittent inversion conveys the idea that at times, the horse is riding the man.

Richard Prince
Untitled (Cowboy), 1989, chromogenic print, 50 x 70 inches (127 x 177.8 cm)

Prince’s subversive appropriation of commonplace imagery and themes from photographs of the quintessential Western Cowboy and Marlboro ads aim to deconstruct notions of authorship, authenticity and identity. This practice of appropriating familiar subject matter exposes inherent notions of desire and power that pervade cultural consciousness, particularly in how they relate to identity and gender constructs.

Fernando Botero
Horse, 1992, painted bronze, 61 × 43 × 27 inches (154.9 × 109.2 × 68.6 cm), artist’s proof 1 of 2

Horse epitomizes the dramatism of voluminous shape and sensuality that defines Botero’s sculptural practice. This monumental work exemplifies the significance of sculpture in Botero’s pursuit of exploring volume and the sensuality as it relates to form. Invoking the mythically sublime, Horse is characteristic of Botero’s ability to amalgamate an array of diverse styles and aesthetics into his own satirical visual lexicon. Assuming its position as one of Botero’s most iconic motifs, the equine form is ennobled with a quiet magnanimity, evocative of anthropomorphic traditions aligning horses with strength and nobility.

Maurizio Cattelan
Untitled, 2007, taxidermied horses, KAPUTT installation view at Fondation Beyeler, Switzerland 

In contrast to traditional taxidermy, in this work five horses are hung in a row with their heads seemingly dissapearing into the wall. Five lonely horses must grapple with the state of their tragic conditions, transforming delusion into and exodus rather than a search for freedom.

Kehinde Wiley
Napoleon Leading the Army over the Alps, 2013, oil on canvas, 108 x 108 inches (274.3 x 274.3 cm)

Kehinde Wiley’s work reflects his keen understanding of portraiture’s ability to convey the power of the subject, while highlighting brown and Black people’s omission from mainstream history. Transposed by creating an alternative narrative, Napoleon Landing the Army over the Alps is emblematic of Wiley’s complex engagement with traditional conventions associated with European traditions. While Wiley preserves David’s composition and pose, a contemporary Black man assumes the position of the heroic figure adorned in camouflage and Timberland boots. 

Mark Wallinger
The White Horse, 2013, marble, resin, and stainless steel, dimensions rendered to life-size 

Comprised of marble and resin, The White Horse illustrates Wallinger’s incessant enthrallment with the equine and its emblematic status within British history. The work depicts a life-size representation of a thoroughbred racehorse created using state of the art technology in which a live horse was scanned using a white light scanner in order to produce an anatomically accurate representation. Relating back to the ancient historical sculptures depicting white horses on the hillside of England, the pose exhibited in Wallinger’s work beckons to the likes of Stubbs’ painting of Eclipse.

Kara Walker
The Jubilant Martyrs of Obsolescence and Ruin, 2015, cut paper on wall, 165 3/8 x 698 13/16 inches (420.05 x 1,774.98 cm)

Based on the Confederate Memorial Carving on the face of Georgia’s Stone Mountain, The Jubilant Martyrs of Obsolescence and Ruin spans nearly sixty feet in its totality. Walker employs caustic, satirical imagery to reconcile the history of oppression and injustice experienced by African-Americans in the South with the persistence of racial and gender stereotypes and ongoing efforts to advance equality in America.

Charles Ray
Two Horses, 2019, granite, 120 3/8 x 178 1/4 x 8 1/2 inches (306 x 453 x 22 cm)
Two Horses is Ray's first monumental relief composed in granite. Ray's practice reveals an acute understanding of the intertwined relationship between time and sculpture. A single block of igneous granite sourced from Virginia was sourced specifically for this work - edifiying the slow process of geological petrification. Modeled on a single horse, the figure becomes doubled with the rear equine figure appearing spectral and only partially visible.

Lascaux Cave Painting: © akg-images
Equestrian Sculpture Marcus Areulis: © photo: Steven Zucker, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0 
Paolo Uccello: © Copyright The National Gallery, London 2021
Albrecht Dürer: © 2000–2021 The Metropolitan Museum of Art. All rights reserved.
George Stubbs: Copyright © 2016–2021 The National Gallery
Jacques Louis David: © 2021 Österreichische Galerie Belvedere 
Eugene Delacroix: © Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest
Rosa Bonhuer: Courtesy The Metropolitan Museum New York
Edgar Degas: © President and Fellows of Harvard College
Georges Seurat: Courtesy of The Morgan Library & Museum
Frederic Remington: © 2000–2021 The Metropolitan Museum of Art. All rights reserved. 
Pablo Picasso: © 2021 Estate of Pablo Picasso / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York
Franz Marc: Städtische Galerie im Lenbachhaus und Kunstbau München, Bernhard und Elly     Koehler Stiftung 1965 Schenkung. aus dem Nachlaß Bernhard Koehler sen., Berlin
Diego Riviera: © 2021 Banco de México Diego Rivera Frida Kahlo Museum Trust, Mexico, D.F. / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York
Georgia O’Keeffe: © Museum Associates/LACMA
Lenora Carrington: Courtesy the Pierre and Maria-Gaetana Matisse Collection, 2002, © 2021 Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York
Bill Traylor: © The Estate of Bill Traylor, Property from the Louis-Dreyfus Family Collections
Salvador Dalí: © Salvador Dalí, Fundació Gala-Salvador Dalí/VEGAP/Artists Rights Society (ARS) New York, photo © Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium, Brussels/photo: J. Geleyns - Ro scan
Jannis Kounellis: © Jannis Kounellis
Deborah Butterfield: © Zolla/Lieberman Gallery, Inc., Chicago | Private collection, Chicago
Louise Lawler: © Louise Lawler, 2019. Courtesy The Rubell Museum. All Rights Reserved.
Norm Classen: © Norm Clasen, Courtesy of Yossi Milo Gallery, New York
Bruce Nauman: © Bruce Nauman/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York
Richard Prince: © Richard Prince, Courtesy of The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Fernando Botero: © The Estate of Fernando Botero
Kehinde Wiley: (Brooklyn Museum, partial gift of Suzi and Andrew Booke Cohen in memory of Ilene R. Booke and in honor of Arnold L. Lehman; Mary Smith Dorward Fund, and William K. Jacobs, Jr Fund; © Kehinde Wiley; photo courtesy Brooklyn Museum)
Mark Wallinger: © 2021 Hauser & Wirth (Photo: Alex Delfanne)
Maurizio Cattalan: Serge Hasenböhler, Basel, courtesy Fondation Beyeler, Riehen/Basel 
Kara Walker: Copyright Kara Walker 2021, courtesy High Museum of Art
Charles Ray: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Photo by Par Stave, 2019 © Charles Ray, Courtesy Matthew Marks Gallery